Volume 5, Number 1 (June 2014)—download Full Issue
UGANDA AND THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO: CHILDREN AT WAR
By Toby N. G. McCarroll
This article takes a comprehensive look at the state and development of youth in both the Republic of Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The primary focus of this article is given to the thousands of child soldiers that have been abducted by militant groups and trained to viciously kill in their most vulnerable adolescent years. Following a brief literature review of published sources that discuss the impacts of conflicts on children in Uganda and the DRC, this article provides an insightful analysis of the youth exploitation crises in these two countries and examines methods that have been implemented to reduce the involvement of youth in these conflicts. (See also: Researching Child Warfare.)
LAND REFORM AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: ZAMBIA VERSUS ZIMBABWE
By Amélie Thouvenot
This article examines the impact of the land reforms undertaken in Zambia and Zimbabwe on agricultural development. The Zambian land reform of 1995 has led to significant improvements in agricultural productivity and output since the early 2000s, allowing for a rising GDP and hopes that such growth will be redistributed across the education and health sector. In Zimbabwe, the land reform of the 2000s led to economic dislocation, a phenomenal drop in total agricultural output, an uncontrolled inflation, a rising debt obligation to foreign nations, and an overwhelming loss in resources as political conflicts sparked violence.
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON COFFEE PRODUCTION IN COLOMBIA AND ETHIOPIA
By Joel Iscaro
This article seeks to address the ways that climate change impacts Colombia and Ethiopia. It directly focuses on the effect of climate change on coffee production, a major part of each nation’s economy. This article comments on the differences and similarities for the two countries in how climate change affects their coffee production. It looks at the issues that arise for coffee production because of changes to the global climate. Specifically, it focuses on the increase of coffee leaf rust and the drastic population increase of the coffee berry borer, an insect that feeds on the berries of coffee plants and negatively impacts worldwide coffee production. This article also examines several possible steps Colombia and Ethiopia could take to limit the damage of climate change on coffee production. It also analyzes what steps Colombia and Ethiopia are currently taking and what other possible solutions the nations could consider.
PERPETUATING A VICIOUS CYCLE: THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF POORLY EDUCATED CHILDREN IN SIERRA LEONE
By Rebecca O’Neill
Sierra Leone is a developing country located in West Africa. Many people in Sierra Leone are living in poverty, partially due to poor education. This article discusses the reasons for poor attendance and low quality schooling as well as the effects of poor education, such as low literacy rates in adults. Furthermore, this article discusses how poor education and its causes perpetuate the cycle of poverty. In this article, the current strategies for promoting education in Sierra Leone are critiqued and other options for improving education are discussed. In conclusion, poor education is both a cause and effect of poverty in Sierra Leone and the improvement of education could be used as a tool to help break the vicious cycle of poverty in Sierra Leone.
DIFFERENCES IN POVERTY IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC AND HAITI: FACTORS THAT AFFECT GROWTH
By Kevin Werner
This article examines poverty in the Dominican Republic and Haiti, which is of particular interest because these two countries share the same island. It will look at income poverty, and how poverty is related to economic growth. Then, it will look at some elements that might affect growth, such as history, education, health, and openness to trade. It will look at these factors as causes for differences in poverty between the two countries. The article recognizes that there are other factors that affect growth, but many scholars have argued that these four factors are important ones. Much of the examination will evaluate work done by previous scholars.