Volume 3, Number 1 (June 2012)—download Full Issue
THE EFFECT OF EDUCATION ON BRAZIL’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
By Lindsay Sandoval
Due to robust economic growth, Brazil has become an economic powerhouse in both Latin America and the developing world. Despite recent success, inequality still persists at surprisingly high levels. The substandard education system is a contributor to this inequity; however, education reform also represents one of the most effective tools for further growth and a more equal distribution of income. This article investigates how Brazil’s failure to raise school learning standards incurs negative long-term effects and outlines the economic benefits of a higher quality education. It reviews the demographic window of opportunity, especially with regards to education, the links between poor education, poverty and inequality, and how inequities hamper economic growth. Finally, the article examines the successes of recent education reforms and how more efficient social spending could bolster economic growth.
MALAWI: A DEVELOPMENT PUZZLE?
By Salman Dossani
This article focuses on the various dimensions of poverty in Malawi. It reviews Malawi’s progress in terms of income poverty and human development. It illustrates Malawi’s puzzling performance of failing to raise its people’s income over most of the last 30 years but making considerable progress in terms of improving non-income human development. It analyzes some of the sources for this discrepancy between GDP growth and human development by looking at the access to safe water and sanitation, corruption and protectionism.
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE POOR IN BOLIVIA
By Christian Winters
Bolivia is one of the poorest countries in South America and as a result is particularly vulnerable to climate change, which poses a threat to both the urban and rural poor. The changing weather patterns and rapid melting of glaciers in the Andes can cause both drought and flooding. That in turn will have an adverse impact on agriculture and the livelihoods of the poor. The economically vulnerable will suffer the most because of their limited ability to adapt. This article will examine the impacts of climate change in detail and will explore some of the options currently available to mitigate those impacts.
THE WOMEN OF THAILAND
By Liza Romanow
Thailand is a developing country located in Southeast Asia. Over the course of the past few decades, it has been going through various transformations. Previously, the country was known for its mistreatment of women. In the new constitution that was written in 1997, women were granted equality with men. However, despite the new legislation, discrimination is still present and apparent in the role women play in government, at home and at work. Women are highly under-represented, are mistreated at home and discriminated at work. Additionally, sex trafficking is still a prevalent problem among women and children. Sex trafficking became extremely prevalent in Thailand during the time of the Vietnam War and has remained a commercial industry ever since in Thailand. Despite some progress, Thailand has a long way to go before reaching gender equality.
DEFORESTATION IN MADAGASCAR: CONSEQUENCES OF POPULATION GROWTH AND UNSUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PROCESSES
By Megan Clark
Located in the Indian Ocean just off the east side of Africa, Madagascar is an island country struggling with problems of deforestation and soil erosion, like many other African countries. Deforestation is due in part to a rising need of using land for food production. However, as it turns out, deforestation has actually damaged Madagascar’s agricultural prospects. Furthermore, deforestation in Madagascar is the source for a loss of habitats for unique species, an increase of carbon dioxide emissions, and soil erosion. This article provides an overview of Madagascar’s deforestation crisis. It reviews Madagascar’s loss of forests, the species at risk due to deforestation, and the negative aspects of deforestation on the local ecosystems and communities. The article also discusses some possible solutions for reversing deforestation in this country.