Please see below for all Global Marority articles, alphabetized by author:
Rural Poverty in Honduras:
Despite Progress, an Ongoing Challenge
By Carlos Andréu
The Republic of Honduras is with approximately 7.7 million inhabitants the second most populated country in Central America. Honduras is also the second poorest country in Central America. Even though poverty affects the country as a whole, Honduras' poverty is essentially a rural problem. This article analyzes rural poverty in Honduras by first providing some empirical background of Honduras and its economic history. It then analyzes the obstacles that cause this extreme rural poverty and finally it presents possible solutions to reduce rural poverty in Honduras by attacking the problem of rural poverty at its core.
Sinking the Pearl of the Indian Ocean:
Climate Change in Sri Lanka
By Nazran Baba
This article analyzes the impact of climate change on Sri Lanka. It recognizes that climate change is a multidimensional phenomenon which does not only impact the environment but also Sri Lanka's economy, health and society. The article provides a literature review and some empirical background on Sri Lanka's greenhouse gas emissions before analyzing the gravity of climate change in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka's options to reacting to this global phenomenon via mitigation and adaptation will also be addressed briefly.
THE CHILDREN OF NORTHERN UGANDA:
The EffectS OF CIVIL WAR
By Madeline Beard
The primary focus of this article is on the exploitation of child soldiers in the northern Ugandan civil war, and the effects this exploitation will have on future generations. It discusses the conditions of child soldiers living in Northern Uganda and utilizes the work done by Invisible Children and other non-profit groups to expose their suffering. The article summarizes the key issues involving the conscription of child soldiers in the Lord's Resistance Army and links them to the lack of health care and education of child soldiers, as well as the vicious cycle of poverty these children continue to face.
THE IMPACTS OF COTE D’IVOIRE’S URBANIZATION ON ITS ECONOMY AND POPULACE
By Michael Bible
Even though Cote d’Ivoire is—by Sub-Saharan African standards—an urbanized nation, it continues to depend heavily on agriculture. Furthermore, despite urbanization, Côte d’Ivoire is still a highly impoverished nation. This article explores a number of impacts of urbanization in the West African nation of Côte d’Ivoire, including effects on agriculture, living conditions of the nation’s population, and the environment. This article will also examine some of the ways in which the negative impacts of urbanization can be curbed and how the positive impacts of urbanization might be broadened in Cote d’Ivoire.
POVERTY AND GENDER INEQUALITY IN POST-WAR EL SALVADOR
By Olivia Bell
This article analyzes the rise and fall of poverty and gender discrimination in El Salvador, with a focus on the 1992-present post-war era. Graphs containing official World Bank data on employment rates, school enrollment, poverty headcounts, and GDP growth are provided as both background information and correlating visuals for the discussion topics. The paper explores the ways that trends in poverty and gender inequalities overlap and provides examples as to how the violent civil war left an impact on life in El Salvador. Post-War reforms and programs are studied and conclusions are made as to the most effective ways to reduce and end poverty and gender inequality in El Salvador.
IMPACT INVESTING AS A SUPPLEMENT TO NICARAGUA'S TRADITIONAL MICROFINANCE
By Robert Book
There are too many good ideas in this world that go ignored and underfunded. By giving the less fortunate access to credit, microfinance has allowed millions of borrowers to fund their ideas for microenterprises. However, the impact these microenterprises have had may not extend very far beyond the individual borrower. Studies indicate that by investing in small and medium sized enterprises, more social impact would be generated. The purpose of this article is to suggest a new securities exchange that would facilitate the flow of capital from individuals globally to small and medium entrepreneurs in developing countries. In this article, this new securities exchange is applied to the case of Nicaragua.
Efforts to Manage the Rapid Growth of Cities
By Janina Calabro
China has experienced rapid levels of urbanization in recent years. Urbanization has lifted many out of poverty and helped to raise GDP per capita, ultimately bettering the living standards for millions of people in China. Although there are many positive results from recent urbanization, China faces a problem of unsustainability. Urbanization has lead to pollution, income inequality, water scarcity and high levels of energy use. It is questioned whether China can properly deal with these negative side effects while sustaining economic growth and overall prosperity. This article reviews the empirical background of China and discusses positive outcomes as well as negative implications of urbanization. Furthermore, it examines some strides China has already made in managing urban growth. The article comes to the conclusion that China has successfully set up programs and institutions that may potentially lead to economic sustainability, but suggests that these programs must be strengthened to increase their potential.
POVERTY IN CENTRAL ASIA:
KAZAKHSTAN VERSUS TAJIKISTAN
By Gregory Chapman
This article reviews the existence and nature of poverty in the two very different Central Asian nations of Kazakhstan and Tajikistan. Kazakhstan is oil-rich and agriculturally productive. Tajikistan is poor, rural, isolated and mountainous. Summarizing the nature of poverty in these two countries, this article seeks to understand some of the driving factors behind it. Though by no means comprehensive or complete, this article illustrates the vast differences between these two countries of the same "neighborhood" and, sadly, one has great hope of outgrowing poverty and the other has not.
DEFORESTATION IN MADAGASCAR: CONSEQUENCES OF POPULATION GROWTH AND UNSUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PROCESSES
By Megan Clark
Located in the Indian Ocean just off the east side of Africa, Madagascar is an island country struggling with problems of deforestation and soil erosion, like many other African countries. Deforestation is due in part to a rising need of using land for food production. However, as it turns out, deforestation has actually damaged Madagascar's agricultural prospects. Furthermore, deforestation in Madagascar is the source for a loss of habitats for unique species, an increase of carbon dioxide emissions, and soil erosion. This article provides an overview of Madagascar's deforestation crisis. It reviews Madagascar's loss of forests, the species at risk due to deforestation, and the negative aspects of deforestation on the local ecosystems and communities. The article also discusses some possible solutions for reversing deforestation in this country.
MALAWI: A DEVELOPMENT PUZZLE?
By Salman Dossani
This article focuses on the various dimensions of poverty in Malawi. It reviews Malawi's progress in terms of income poverty and human development. It illustrates Malawi's puzzling performance of failing to raise its people's income over most of the last 30 years but making considerable progress in terms of improving non-income human development. It analyzes some of the sources for this discrepancy between GDP growth and human development by looking at the access to safe water and sanitation, corruption and protectionism.
WATER POVERTY IN RURAL ETHIOPIA: EFFECTS ON WOMEN, HEALTH AND THE POVERTY CYCLE
By Bailey Edelstein
Millions of people suffer from water poverty worldwide. Specifically, the rural regions of Ethiopia are plagued by the lack of access to adequate water sources. Ethiopia's arid climate is especially unforgiving to the women whose primary role is to collect water from distant sources. Among their other responsibilities, water retrieval inflicts the highest level of stress upon a woman, physically and psychosocially. The task of water collection has been gender specific to Ethiopian women for generations and their time spent traveling to and from water sources implies significant opportunity costs. While access to water in these rural communities has improved, there is a continuous need for the development and modernization of water retrieval methods.
BRAZIL'S ECONOMIC GROWTH: WITH OR WITHOUT PROSPERITY?
By Ana Cristina Sauri Faller
Currently, about 20 million people live in poverty (below US$2-a-day) in Brazil. The gap between the highest and the lowest social levels is high. A considerable part of Brazil's population does not have access to basic services such as clean water, food and education. This situation prevails despite the progress made since the mid-1990s, when Fernando Enrique Cardoso became president, followed by various social programs implemented by the government of Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, which lowered the percentage of people living below the poverty line considerably. Today, the biggest social challenge facing the Brazilian government and society remains to be a lack of education, housing, health care, and nutrition, especially for Brazil's poor children. Close to one million of such children live in favelas or in the streets confronting miserable living conditions and even starvation.
Maternal Schooling in Pakistan:
The Girl Effect in Action
By Lisa Gabrielson
In Pakistan, women have long been second-class citizens due to a deeply embedded set of religious and cultural values that have prevented equality between men and women, and between boys and girls. Recently, the Pakistani government has been investing a large amount of funds into education. While in the past most of the Pakistani Government's segregated education funding went mostly to boys' schools, there has been increased international pressure to expand the availability of primary education to girls. The collateral effect of women's education expands far beyond the ability to read and write. Women with an education have more influence and more bargaining power when it comes to making decisions, which is beneficial for their families as well as society. When women are educated there is a drastic decrease in fertility, maternal mortality, infant mortality, and child mortality. This is called the girl effect. This paper reviews the girl effect based on the recent experience in Pakistan.
The Water Crisis in Yemen:
Causes, Consequences and Solutions
By Nicole Glass
Yemen, a country located in a dry and semi-arid region of the Middle East, is already facing a severe water crisis. Mostly due to high population growth, misguided agricultural development and the growth of qat, a lack of law enforcement to regulate water use, and a vulnerable climate to climate change, the crisis may soon reach catastrophic levels. Beyond a brief description of the main causes of Yemen's water crisis, this article also provides a brief overview of the literature, some empirical background, an analysis on the consequences, and a discussion of some of the proposed solutions to Yemen's water crisis.
Water in Ethiopia: Drought, Disease and Death
By Morgan Hendrix
For the last thirty years, drought has consistently suffocated the landlocked country of Ethiopia. Several additional factors have made Ethiopia's water crisis worse. The lack of water and sanitation has created and spread food shortages and famine across the country, forced children to seek clean water over attending school, and water-borne illnesses have claimed many lives. Solutions do exist for Ethiopia and many organizations are willing help Ethiopia. However, if present conditions continue, the only things certain in Ethiopia's future are drought, disease, and death.
Effects of Neoliberal Reforms on Small-Scale
Agriculture in Brazil
By Alexandra Huddell
Following the 1980s debt crisis, many developing countries like Brazil were pushed by the International Monetary Fund to adopt a variety of neoliberal reforms which limited government interventions, reduced subsidies, and opened up the economy to international competition and trade. This article reviews the effects these neoliberal reforms had on small-scale agriculture in Brazil, by looking specifically at coffee farmers. It shows that even though production increased initially for all coffee producers, market competitiveness soon favored capital-intensive landowners and foreign interests and thus marginalized small rural farmers. The reforms also had the unintended consequences of an accelerated urban migration and environmental degradation.
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON COFFEE PRODUCTION IN COLOMBIA AND ETHIOPIA
By Joel Iscaro
This article seeks to address the ways that climate change impacts Colombia and Ethiopia. It directly focuses on the effect of climate change on coffee production, a major part of each nation's economy. This article comments on the differences and similarities for the two countries in how climate change affects their coffee production. It looks at the issues that arise for coffee production because of changes to the global climate. Specifically, it focuses on the increase of coffee leaf rust and the drastic population increase of the coffee berry borer, an insect that feeds on the berries of coffee plants and negatively impacts worldwide coffee production. This article also examines several possible steps Colombia and Ethiopia could take to limit the damage of climate change on coffee production. It also analyzes what steps Colombia and Ethiopia are currently taking and what other possible solutions the nations could consider.
Climate Change in Zambia: Impacts and Adaptation
By Couroche Kalantary
This article summarizes the impacts of climate change in Zambia as well as Zambia's adaptation efforts, both of which are detailed in Zambia's National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) of September 2007. The article provides also (1) a brief review of the Zambia-specific climate change literature and (2) some empirical background on Zambia's socio-economic status and Zambia's agriculture. Among others, the article comes to the conclusion that in addition to international assistance, the Zambian government needs to become more capable of providing some sort of security for its people.
THE URBAN PLAN FOR INDIA: A FOUNDATION FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH
By Will Lawther
Asia's urban population is estimated to double between 2000 and 2030. India is the dominant force in South Asia, and the vastly diverse country is by no means isolated from the growing urban movement. Urban environments have statistically shown as being epicenters for economic growth, resource development, and occupational opportunities. Urbanization has been the fundamental factor of economic growth within the industrial age. Yet, to many public officials, urbanization is seen as a hindrance to growth. Potential negative implications of urbanization include an increase in the propensity of crime, poverty and insecurity. These negative implications need to be managed in order to lift India's developing status. The cost-benefit ratio for India is clear, and planning, housing, infrastructure and the spreading of social services are paramount issues on the docket of urbanization.
A PROBLEM STUNTING HONDURAS’S ENTIRE ECONOMY
By Rachel Lomot
Honduras is a developing country located in Central America that has been notorious for its maltreatment of women and the prevalence of sex and labor trafficking. However, in the last decade many laws have been put in place by the Honduran government to provide rights and protection to its women. Despite legislation, many women still face daily domestic violence and discrimination in the work place. The country still lives by its machismo values, meaning that it is a male-dominated society. Women are half the population, and thus have the potential to be a huge benefit in the economy. Until women can enter into the workforce the Honduran economy will stay as stunted.
The WATER CRISIS IN KENYA:
CAUSES, EFFECTS AND SOLUTIONS
By Samantha Marshall
Located on the eastern coast of Africa, Kenya, a generally dry country with a humid climate, is enduring a severe water crisis. Several issues such as global warming (causing recurrent and increasingly severe droughts as well as floods), the contamination of drinking water, and a lack of investment in water resources have enhanced the crisis. This article provides an overview of Kenya's water crisis, along with a brief review of the literature and some empirical background. It reviews the main causes of the water crisis and how it affects the health of millions of Kenyans. Furthermore, the article summarizes some of the main solutions proposed to overcome the crisis.
UGANDA AND THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO:
CHILDREN AT WAR
By Toby N. G. McCarroll
This article takes a comprehensive look at the state and development of youth in both the Republic of Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The primary focus of this article is given to the thousands of child soldiers that have been abducted by militant groups and trained to viciously kill in their most vulnerable adolescent years. Following a brief literature review of published sources that discuss the impacts of conflicts on children in Uganda and the DRC, this article provides an insightful analysis of the youth exploitation crises in these two countries and examines methods that have been implemented to reduce the involvement of youth in these conflicts. (See also: Researching Child Warfare.)
Indonesia: A Vulnerable Country in the Face of Climate Change
By Mariah Measey
This article reviews the causes of Indonesia's high greenhouse gas releases, the impacts climate change has on the country, and the effects of climate change. It shows that deforestation, forest fires and the degradation of peat land have been the main causes for Indonesia being the world's third largest emitter of greenhouse gases. It summarizes some of the main impacts climate change has in Indonesia, which include, but are not limited to: temperature increase, intense rainfall, sea level rise, and a threat to food security. It examines the effects climate change has on (i) Indonesia's economy and poor people, (ii) human health, and (iii) Indonesia's environment and biodiversity.
UGANDA’S GENDER DIVIDE AND MOVES TOWARDS EQUALITY
By Kerry Milazzo
In Uganda women are considered anything but equal to their male counterparts due to a lack of education, cultural beliefs, and low access and acceptance of birth control. Most women have been forced into accepting the role of second-class citizens. However, when women are educated their lives change drastically. They have opportunities to provide for themselves and their families, which alters the poverty cycle. Instead of marrying at young adolescent ages, they will wait until they are older and ready for a family. This article focuses on how programs promoting education for women, creating job opportunities for women, and accepting birth control empowers women. The women of Uganda deserve a chance to be equal to men in hope for better lives.Read Article
Poverty in BOLIVIA:
DIMENSIONS, POLITICAL CONFLICT AND STRATEGIES
By Eliza Morgan
Bolivia is one of the poorest and most unequal countries in Latin America. This article discusses several dimensions of Bolivia's poverty, including income poverty and inequality, lack of access to safe water and sanitation, high infant mortality, malnutrition, and a lack of basic infrastructure. The country suffers from both urban and rural poverty, though rural poverty is prominent. After summarizing some of the relevant literature and giving some empirical background about the country, this article discusses various dimensions of poverty in Bolivia, focusing on the struggles that face the 10 million people living there today. There have been major political conflicts in the last few decades that have lasting effects on the nation. Despite the conflicts, Bolivia is showing its dedication to reduce poverty, but this is a process that will need to continue for many years in the future.
PERPETUATING A VICIOUS CYCLE: THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF POORLY EDUCATED CHILDREN IN SIERRA LEONE
By Rebecca O'Neill
Sierra Leone is a developing country located in West Africa. Many people in Sierra Leone are living in poverty, partially due to poor education. This article discusses the reasons for poor attendance and low quality schooling as well as the effects of poor education, such as low literacy rates in adults. Furthermore, this article discusses how poor education and its causes perpetuate the cycle of poverty. In this article, the current strategies for promoting education in Sierra Leone are critiqued and other options for improving education are discussed. In conclusion, poor education is both a cause and effect of poverty in Sierra Leone and the improvement of education could be used as a tool to help break the vicious cycle of poverty in Sierra Leone.
How the Lack of Access to Safe Water and Sanitation Hampers Growth and Development: The Case of Peru
By Emily Platt
Peru's failure to bring clean water and sanitation to many of the rural parts of the country has hampered its economic development as well as the health and living standards of many of its citizens. Failed policies for distributing and regulating clean water, coupled with a lack of urgency to attend to the rural population, are primarily responsible for keeping many Peruvians poor. The economic advantages of attending to these policy issues far outweigh the costs and provide compelling evidence for Peru's leaders to value the long-term benefits over the short-term costs.
The Caste System:
Effects on Poverty in India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka
By Jasmine Rao
Though mostly outlawed, the caste system continues to be one of the key drivers of poverty and inequality in South Asia. This article reviews the linkage between poverty and the caste system in India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. It also discusses the situation of the so-called Dalits (untouchables), which are typically considered to fall outside of the caste system. In addition to secondary evidence based on recent literature analyzing the relevance and impact of the caste system on poverty, the article is also based on an interview with a young male Indian, who experienced the impact of the caste system as well as the impact of the recently adopted reservation system for India's Dalits.
MAKING THE RICE BOWL BIGGER: AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT AND RURAL POVERTY IN THAILAND
By Lila Rieber
This article examines agricultural output and rural poverty in Thailand, a transforming economy in which agriculture plays a shrinking but still important role. It analyzes the effectiveness of strategies to reduce poverty and increase output, while noting that these can exacerbate inequality. These strategies range from investing in human development, to agricultural research and development, to financial and trade policies. Strategies to minimize inequality without stifling growth are briefly covered. Also considered is the future of the Green Revolution: how can Thailand maintain technological progress and increases in total factor productivity while minimizing degradation of the environment?
THE WOMEN OF THAILAND
By Liza Romanow
Thailand is a developing country located in Southeast Asia. Over the course of the past few decades, it has been going through various transformations. Previously, the country was known for its mistreatment of women. In the new constitution that was written in 1997, women were granted equality with men. However, despite the new legislation, discrimination is still present and apparent in the role women play in government, at home and at work. Women are highly under-represented, are mistreated at home and discriminated at work. Additionally, sex trafficking is still a prevalent problem among women and children. Sex trafficking became extremely prevalent in Thailand during the time of the Vietnam War and has remained a commercial industry ever since in Thailand. Despite some progress, Thailand has a long way to go before reaching gender equality.
CHILDREN IN EL SALVADOR: GETTING EXPLOITED AND MISSING OPPORTUNITIES
By Yeomin Ryu
This article researches past and current child labor exploitations in El Salvador that began to become endemic during El Salvador’s civil war from 1979-1992. It looks into negative results caused by child labor. Child labor exploitation is an important issue not only because children get lower wages and work in poor conditions but also because this issue will cause the youth in El Salvador to miss their own opportunity to get educated and find a landmark of their life. Solving the child labor problem in El Salvador will play an important role in deciding not only children’s future but also El Salvador’s future.Read Article
THE EFFECT OF EDUCATION ON BRAZIL'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
By Lindsay Sandoval
Due to robust economic growth, Brazil has become an economic powerhouse in both Latin America and the developing world. Despite recent success, inequality still persists at surprisingly high levels. The substandard education system is a contributor to this inequity; however, education reform also represents one of the most effective tools for further growth and a more equal distribution of income. This article investigates how Brazil's failure to raise school learning standards incurs negative long-term effects and outlines the economic benefits of a higher quality education. It reviews the demographic window of opportunity, especially with regards to education, the links between poor education, poverty and inequality, and how inequities hamper economic growth. Finally, the article examines the successes of recent education reforms and how more efficient social spending could bolster economic growth.
ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER AND EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY IN NICARAGUA
By Nathan Strauss
This article examines the accessibility of clean water sources in Nicaragua and reviews Nicaragua’s water resource management in terms of obstacles and challenges. It also examines how citizen concern and engagement could improve Nicaragua’s water resource management. The article then reviews some of the sources for Nicaragua’s low school enrollment, whereby it is conjectured that water accessibility is an important factor. The article concludes that Nicaragua’s long-term economic development prospects would be enhanced significantly if the Nicaraguan government would pay more attention to the access to safe water and education.
LAND REFORM AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: ZAMBIA VERSUS ZIMBABWE
By Amélie Thouvenot
This article examines the impact of the land reforms undertaken in Zambia and Zimbabwe on agricultural development. The Zambian land reform of 1995 has led to significant improvements in agricultural productivity and output since the early 2000s, allowing for a rising GDP and hopes that such growth will be redistributed across the education and health sector. In Zimbabwe, the land reform of the 2000s led to economic dislocation, a phenomenal drop in total agricultural output, an uncontrolled inflation, a rising debt obligation to foreign nations, and an overwhelming loss in resources as political conflicts sparked violence.
POVERTY AND FERTILITY IN INDIA: SOME FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO A POSITIVE CORRELATION
By Brittany Traeger
India has diminishing population growth rates and fertility rates; however, they still remain high compared to the world average. The families living in poverty are those having the most children because they are consistently trapped in poverty from generation to generation with little opportunity. Poor families are typically larger because they use children as a source of generating income via child labor. Parents also have children for insurance purposes because they envision needing help when they get older. All children born into poverty, especially girls, have little opportunity to escape from it in adulthood because of the lack of education and power. Another cause for high fertility rates is the large unmet need for family planning among the poor. Investing in family planning amongst the poor would be efficient to reduce fertility rates and poverty. Furthermore, increases in school enrollments, (including for girls) result in more power for females and thus decreasing fertility rates.
Poverty in Nigeria: Some Dimensions and Contributing Factors
by Chimobi Ucha
Unemployment, corruption, non-diversification of the economy, income inequality, laziness, and a poor education system can be considered to be some of the key factors contributing to poverty in Nigeria. This article analyzes these factors after reviewing some of the most recent contributions to the literature and summarizing some of the key dimensions of poverty in Nigeria. It also shows that there are various linkages between the six key factors as well as enforcing feedbacks from the various dimensions of poverty in Nigeria.
DIFFERENCES IN POVERTY IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC AND HAITI: FACTORS THAT AFFECT GROWTH
By Kevin Werner
This article examines poverty in the Dominican Republic and Haiti, which is of particular interest because these two countries share the same island. It will look at income poverty, and how poverty is related to economic growth. Then, it will look at some elements that might affect growth, such as history, education, health, and openness to trade. It will look at these factors as causes for differences in poverty between the two countries. The article recognizes that there are other factors that affect growth, but many scholars have argued that these four factors are important ones. Much of the examination will evaluate work done by previous scholars.
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE POOR IN BOLIVIA
By Christian Winters
Bolivia is one of the poorest countries in South America and as a result is particularly vulnerable to climate change, which poses a threat to both the urban and rural poor. The changing weather patterns and rapid melting of glaciers in the Andes can cause both drought and flooding. That in turn will have an adverse impact on agriculture and the livelihoods of the poor. The economically vulnerable will suffer the most because of their limited ability to adapt. This article will examine the impacts of climate change in detail and will explore some of the options currently available to mitigate those impacts.
CLIMATE CHANGE IN CHINA: CAN CHINA BE A MODEL OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT?
By Hiromi Yagi
China has developed dramatically in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Expressed in market exchange rates, its GDP overtook Japan's in 2010, making it the second largest economic power in the world. However, it recently also became the country with the largest amount of greenhouse gas emissions in the world. Its energy use (mostly consisting of carbon emitting coal and gas) has contributed to climate change, which has impacted not only the Chinese but also people all over the world. In recent years, China is changing its attitude about global warming, and is also trying to improve its energy system. This article reviews the empirical background of China's large greenhouse gas emission, the impact of climate change in China, and recent Chinese policies on global warming. It concludes that China needs strong institutions and the involvement of not only of the central government but also local government and citizens to effectively implement policy changes for sustainable development.