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L. C. Marshall Papers

VOLUME: 31.5 linear feet

ACCESS: This collection is open to the public upon request.  

COPYRIGHT: Please consult the archivist for information about duplication or publishing of any materials from this collection.

Biographical Note

Leon Carroll Marshall was born March 15, 1879 in Zanesville, Ohio. After receiving a Bachelor’s degree at Ohio Wesleyan University in 1900 and a Master’s degree at Harvard University in 1902, Marshall received a law degree at Ohio Wesleyan in 1918. He served as a professor at the John Hopkins Law School between 1928 and 1933, where he served as the director of the Institute of Law until its closing. In 1934, President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Marshall as a member of the National Labor Board, the National Recovery Administration and the National Industrial Recovery Board, as a part of New Deal policies to measure and combat the effects of the Great Depression.

In 1936 Marshall was appointed Professor at American University, a position which he held until his retirement in 1948. As a Professor, Marshall taught classes primarily in Political Science, Economics and Social Studies. By 1947, Marshall held the rank of Clendenen Professor of Political Economy, was the Chairman of the University Standing Committee, and taught the courses “Human Living: The Social Sciences,” “The United States in its World Setting,” and “Backgrounds of Social Science and Administration.”

Throughout his career, primarily between 1936 and 1942, Marshall took active participation in curriculum development and textbook publications for Social Studies topics at the grade-school level. A member of the National Educational Association, Marshall first published Curriculum-Making in the Social Studies in 1936, and subsequently published Living Together Well with Catheryn Seckler-Hudson in 1940 and Understanding Yourself and Your World with William M. Brish in 1944, textbooks for secondary school education.

Leon C. Marshall died in Bethesda in March 1966.

Scope and Content Note

Leon C. Marshall had an extensive publishing record and academic career, and also had a role in the New Deal policies of the federal government. Marshall’s involvement in curriculum development for secondary schools led to his publication of two Social Studies textbooks, Living Together Well and Understanding Yourself and Your World. This collection consists of reports and data collection from the National Recovery Administration (1934-1936), his research as a Law Professor at Johns Hopkins University (1928-1932), his course development and interactions with University Administration as a Professor at American University (1936-1948), and articles, pamphlets, photographic negatives, and notes related to the planning, creation, and editing of both his textbooks.

Provenance

This collection was donated by Margaret M. Stewart and Mrs. Rachel Goetz in 1969 to the American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. In May 2008, the collection was deaccessioned and transferred to American University.

Processing Note

This collection was divided into four series – National Recovery Administration/National Resources Board, Publications, Academics and Correspondence. Marshall’s original folder titles were maintained whenever possible.

Series Descriptions & Box and Folder Listing

Series 1: National Recovery Administration/National Resources Board (1934-1946)
3 linear feet

Between 1934 and 1936 Leon C. Marshall took active positions in the NRA and the NRB. These committees, created under FDR’s New Deal projects, attempted to measure the economic status of the United States. This series includes reports and studies examining the various factions of the United States agricultural and industrial fields during Marshall’s tenure on the National Labor Board. This material is organized according to subject.

Box 1
National Recovery Administration (NRA)
Department of Labor: Advisory Council to the Secretary of Labor, 1918
Division of Review: Confidential Report, 1936
NRA (2 folders)
Condensed Information Based on the Operation of the National Industrial Recovery Act
Tables on the Operation of the National Industrial Recovery Act
Codes of Fair Competition
Executive List, 1933
Legal Aspects of Trade Practices and Federal Trade Commission, 1933-1935
Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States of America, 1934
Hours and Wages Provisions in NRA Codes – Compilation Organized by L.C. Marshall, 1935
Report on the Operation of the N.I.R.A., 1935
Constitutional Problems and New NRA Legislation, 1935
Invalidity of NRA Codes, 1935
Index of Charts on the Trend of Major Industries Under the Operation of the N.I.R.A., 1935
Division of Review:  Anti-Trust Laws and Unfair Competition, 1935
Division of Review:  Index:  Periodical References to NRA, 1935
Section Heads (4 folders), 1935, n.d.
Division of Review:  Information Bulletin, 1935-1936
Activities of the National Recovery Administration, 1935-1936
Tentative Formation of Labor Policy
Various Consultant Memoranda, 1935-1936
“What Phases of the NRA Activity Appear to be Economically Sound and Practical?,” 1936
National Bituminous Coal Commission, 1937
Preliminary Inventories of Records of NRA (National Archives), 1952
Special Lists – Select List of Documents (National Archives), 1954

Box 2
National Resources Board/Council

National Resources Board - Report on National Planning and Public Works in Relation to Natural Resources, Part I and II, 1934
Report of the National Planning Association
Report of the NEA Committee on Socio-Economic Goals for America
Pamphlet – Report of the Committee on the Social-Economic Goals of America
Agriculture in Alaska
History in Agriculture
Long Range Farm Development
Wickard’s 1944 Statement of Agriculture Post-War Needs
Farm People and the Land After the War, 1943
National Resources Board - Report on National Planning and Public Works in Relation to Natural Resources, Part III, 1934
Findings and Recommendations, Part V Report of the Board of Surveys and Maps, 1934
Our Cities: Their Role in the National Economy - National Resources Committee, June 1937
Technological Trends and National Policy - National Resources Committee, June 1937
Patterns of Resource Use: A Technical Report Prepared by the Industrial Section Under Direction of Gardiner C. Means - National Resources Committee, 1938
The Problems of a Changing Population - National Resources Committee, May 1938
Research - A National Resource: I. Relation of the Federal Government to Research - National Resources Committee, December 1938
The Structure of the American Economy P. I Basic Characteristics - National Resources Committee, June 1939
Energy Resources and National Policy (SPA and Dept. of Agriculture)
The Structure of the American Economy P. II Toward Full Use of Resources - National Resources Committee, June 1940
Technology on the Farm, August 1940
A Statement of Our Creed
National Resources Development Report for 1943 P. I Post-War Plan and Program
Public Affairs Bulletin - Missouri Valley Authority, 1946
16th Census of the United States 1940 - Population: Differential Fertility 1940 and 1910: Fertility for States and Large Cities, 1945
16th Census of the United States 1940 - Population: Women by Number of Children Under 5 Years Old, 1945
President's Committee on Administration Management Report with Special Studies, 1937
Trails and Rails: A Story of Transportation Progress in Illinois, 1937
Regional Shifts in the Post-War Traffic of Class I Railways V. I, 1946
Regional Shifts in the Post-War Traffic of Class I Railways V. II Appendixes, 1946


Series 2: Publications (1936-1952)
13.5 linear feet

This series documents publications by Leon C. Marshall, in particular social science curriculum for grade-schools. Curriculum-Making in the Social Studies (1936) is documented through material related to social studies, the social sciences and the creation of grade-school curriculums. In 1940 Marshall and Catheryn Seckler-Hudson published Living Together Well, and this series includes draft copies of the units of this publication. Subsequently, in 1944, Marshall and William M. Brish published the textbook Understanding Yourself and your World. This series contains plans, marked draft copies of the book, and biological science notes, culture and groups notes and other miscellaneous notes related to creating the content of the textbooks. This material is organized according to subject.

Box 3
Social Studies

Social Studies Pamphlets (2 folders)
Grant Request to AU in Support of a Social Studies Project
Memo. to Teachers (2 folders)
Objectives - Social Studies in General Education
The Social Process Approach to the Social Studies
Report on Preparation and Experimental Use of Materials on the Social Process Approach
Notes and Materials on the Social Process Approach
The Basic Processes of Society
Social Studies Framework
Education Materials
World History Education Materials
The Basic Process Approach in Building a Course of Study in Modern European History
Problems of Democracy: Tests, Instructions
Problems of Democracy, Project Cooperating Teachers
High School Problems of Democracy
Miscellaneous Social Studies Memoranda, 1937-1942
Social and Economic Problems: Outlines of Lectures – Prepared by Henry G. Burke
The American Education Press Material
Report on the Commission on the Social Studies

Box 4
Social Sciences

School Situatuons [sic] – Social Processes
Social Science and Public Affairs
Social Science Exams
Social Sciences: Typed Readings
Background of Government Decisions
Occupational Classes
University of Denver Social Science Outline
Miscellaneous Social Science Background
Misc. Background
Misc. Rejects
Report on Basis Social Science
Report and Recommendations
Reading Reference
Ideas
For Teachers of Adult Ed.
The Relation of Physical Education to the Basic Process Approach
Process Approach and Teaching of Social Sciences (Typed Readings)
Class Materials – Social Science Survey: Part I (1947)
Class Materials – Social Science Survey: Part II (1948)
Miscellaneous Social Science Notes
Miscellaneous Social Science Notes and Booklets

Box 5
Living Together Well

Living Together Well Unit 1 – Understanding Ourselves and Our World - Framework
Living Together Well: A Social Science Approach – Volume I, 1936 (2 copies) – experimental form
Living Together Well: Volume I, 1940 – preliminary edition
Living Together Well: Unit I – Understanding Ourselves and Our World (1940) – draft
Living Together Well: Unit II – Accumulating and Transmitting Culture (1940) – marked copy
Living Together Well: Unit II and Unit III – Developing and Utilizing Standards (1940) – draft
Living Together Well: Unit IV – Forming, Maintaining, and Governing Groups (1940) – draft
Living Together Well: Unit V – Learning to Control Nature (1941) – marked copy
Living Together Well: Unit VI – Economic Organization (1941) – draft
Living Together Well: Unit VII – The Adjustment of Population (1941) – draft
Living Together Well: Units I – IX, 1940, 1942
Reading Reference

Box 6
Understanding Yourself and Your World (1952)

Plan on the Book – not used
Understanding Yourself and Your World: List of Illustrations, Charts, Tables, Inserts, etc.
Revision Notes
Useful Reference Units I – II
Chapter 1 – You, A Sample of the Human Being
Unit I: Chapter 1 – You, A Human Being, Can Learn
Unit I: Chapter 2 – Your Arm, Your Hand, Your Organs of Speech
Unit I: Chapter 3 – Your Nervous System: Your Main Equipment for Building Culture
Unit II: Chapter 4 – You, A Sample of the Human Being
Unit II: Chapter 5 – Man Builds Culture by Borrowing Cultural Ways
Unit II: Chapter 6 – Man Builds Up Culture by Inventing Cultural Ways
Unit II: Chapter 7 – Language as Only Man Has it
Unit II: Chapter 8 – A New World of Communication
Unit III: Chapter 9 – Your Standards and How they Guide You
Unit III: Chapter 10 – Our Standards Can be Made Better and Better
Unit III: Chapter 11 – Groups and Social Control
Unit III: Chapter 12 – The Long Period of Poor Cultural Ways of Harnessing Nature
Unit IV: Chapter 13 – The First Great Revolution in Man’s Use of His Physical World 8000BC-3000BC
Unit IV: Chapter 14 – The Second Great Revolution in Man’s Use of His Physical World 3000BC-1500AD
Unit IV: Chapter 15 – Since 1500 AD, The Third and Greatest of All Revolutions
Unit IV: Chapter 16 – Since 1500 AD, The Third and Greatest of All Revolutions
Conclusion
Forward
Index
Illustrations and Bibliography Notes
Surplus File Reference, Chapters 1-17
Bibliography
Illustrations to be Photographed
Objectives (2 folders)
Forming and Maintaining Group
Miscellaneous Notes and Articles
Background Consideration

Box 7
Understanding Yourself and Your World (continued)

Understanding Yourself and Your World: Basic Social Science, by: LC Marshall in collaboration with William M. Brish (marked copy)
Understanding Yourself and Your World – Correll copy (some markings)
Understanding Yourself and Your World: Unit IV and Conclusion – Correll copy (some markings)
Understanding Yourself and Your World – Official Corrected Copy
Understanding Yourself and Your World: Unit IV and Conclusion – Official Corrected Copy
Part One, Part Two edits
Part Three edits
Part Four workhorse
Proofs of Books

Box 8
Biological Sciences

Glossary of Key Biological Terms
Notes and Material on Biology
Biology – Typed Readings
A Possible Biotechnic-Sociotechnic World
Organic Evolution
Questions on Health
Control of Illness
Control of Nature
Eugenics
Typed and Mimeographed Readings on Evolution and Race (Biological Background)
Notes on Heredity
Heredity (Material other than Illness)
Readings on the Cell, Heredity, Plant and Animal Breeding, and Nature vs. Nurture
Pamphlet, The Journal of Heredity, Volume 35
Foundations of Personality
The Nervous System
Typed and Mimeographed Readings on the Nervous System – Instincts, Reflexes, and Psychology
Typed and Mimeographed Readings on the Autonomic Nervous System, Glands and Internal Environment
Glandular Population
Actural Photo and Drawings
Illustrations Legends
Biology Illustrations (not used)
Collection of Typed and Mimeographed Readings on Miscellaneous Subjects (Biological Base)
Material which was worked into the final mimeographed reading

Box 9
Culture and Groups

Culture Accumulation and Change
Accumulating and Transmitting Culture
Class Notes and Assignments
The Emergence of Western Civilization and Its Spread
Excerpts Upon Which to Reflect
Language
Plan on the Book not used
Population, Typed Readings
Typed Readings, Population and Race Continuance
Man, Builder of Culture
Race, Typed Readings
Stock for Text
Problems of Today and Tomorrow – Table of Contents
The People and the Cultures of the New World, Chapter 1-3 – marked copy
Chapter 1: The People and Cultures of the New World – Text and Illustrations
Chapter 2: The New World is Opened and England Rises to Dominance in North America – Text and Illustrations
Chapter 3: England, France and Holland Enter the Drama of European Expansion
Chapter 4: England Builds a Colonial Empire and Rises to Dominance in North America
The Role of Culture in Human Adjustment
The Historian as Therapist
Thinking Tools
What is Culture and How Do We Accumulate It? Michener's Framework
Accumulation and Change of Culture, Typed Readings
Notes on Cultural Development
Sets of Questions on Law

Box 10
Culture and Groups (continued)

Culture – Typed Articles
Unit IV
Coordination of Groups
What is Social Order?
Conservation of the Race and Personality Molding
Standards and Values – Bibliography
The Economic Order – Bibliography
Administration – Reject Group
Nature of Man Lectures
Nature of Man Notes and Theories
New Scientific Humanism
Statement of Essential Human Rights
Some $64.00 Questions (What Has Happened to the Population?)
1947 – Year of the Big Move
Group Behavior
Social Living in the School: A Project of a School Laboratory of Group Living
The Journal of Business – Groups and their Co-ordination
Preliminary Readings and Notes
Groups – Rejected Second Sorting/Rejected First Sorting

Box 11
Culture and Groups (continued)

Culture – Rejected Second Sorting/Rejected First Sorting
Administration (Reject Group)
Culture Collateral, Copy 2
List of Publishers with Selections Used in Readings
Social Science Personality and Standards
Groups, Copy 2
Standards –Typed Mimeo Readings
Standards File
Standards: Rejected (1st, 2nd, 3rd sorting)
Miscellaneous Notes


Series 3: Academics (1928-1948)
12 linear feet

This series documents Leon C. Marshall’s academic career including his tenure as a Law Professor at Johns Hopkins University Law School (1928-1933) through news articles, studies of law and judicial administration, and books of which Marshall authored the forewords. From 1936 until 1948, Marshall was a Professor at American University, teaching subjects in Social Studies, American History, Political Science and Economics. This series includes memoranda, lecture material, notes and exams from the various courses he taught. Courses include: “The United States in its World Setting,” “Institute on the Position of the U.S. in World Affairs,” and “Human Living: The Social Sciences.” Marshall’s “Human Living: The Social Sciences” course used a method called “The Basic Process Approach” in the creation of the curriculum. This material is organized according to subject.

Box 12
Johns Hopkins

News Articles
General Court Material (3 folders)
Faculty of the Institute of Law
Miscellaneous Law
Statement of the Present Status of the Institute of Law
Extracts From Letters Concerning Trial Court Materials
Institute for the Study of Law (4 folders)
The Institute of Law
Studies in Judicial Administration
Studies in Judicial Administration in Ohio
Studies of Judicial System of Maryland
Coast Guard
Publications:  Book Reviews
Miscellaneous Notes and Clippings
American University
Memorandum on a Course for Freshmen
Graduate Board
American Federal Government Course
Economics and Government
Course - Institute on the Position of the U.S. in World Affairs
Committee on Public Administration Memoranda
Background of Public and Business Administration
Social Studies $ Presentation
National Legislation Course (SPA)
Groups and Their Administration
Memoranda to Chancellor Gray
Pamphlets
Constitutional and Administrative Law Lecture Material
Open Meeting
Resumes
Notes on Courses on Labor
A Proposal in Economic Education (n.d.)
Law and Economics (n.d.)
Constitutional and Administrative Law Questions (n.d.)
Some Components of a Three Year Plan (n.d.)
Foundation in Business Education (n.d.)
American History Course Notes, Maps
Notes and Term Paper
Course Review Questions
The United States in its World Settings Course – Exams First Semester, 1946-47
The United States in Western Civilization Exam Question

Box 13
American University (continued)

Suggested Collateral Readings for Backgrounds in Public and Business Administration (n.d.)
Human Living
Typed Readings on the Basic Processes of Human Living
Human Living Curriculum Materials
Education Materials (2 folders)
Receipts – Human Living
Human Living: The Social Sciences (first semester)
Reference Questions
Personal, Operational, Integrational Notes
Human Living: The Social Sciences (Mimeo Readings)
Readings on the Processes of Human Living
The Basic Processes of Human Living (Alt. Title: Intro. To S.S.), 1936
The Basic Processes of Human Living (Alt. Title: Intro. To S.S.), 1937
The Basic Processes of Human Living (Alt. Title: Intro. To S.S.), 1939

Box 14
Human Living (continued)

Rejects Group
Useful References (2 folders)
Type[d] Reading on the Processes of Human Living (3 folders)
Typed Readings, Developing and Operating the agencies of Social Organization (2 folders)
Leikind’s Lecture
Evolution and Achievement of Man Notes
Exams (2 folders)
Human Scene: Typed Readings
Underlying Features of the Human Scene
Human Scene: Copy 2
Memorandum on a Course for Freshmen
Miscellaneous Notes, Readings and Clippings (3 folders)

Box 15
Human Living (continued)

Human Living: The Social Sciences Course – Class Notes
Human Living: The Social Sciences – Ideas and Material on Introduction, Tentative Outlines, Approaches book and Article Selections for use in Introduction, Misc. Original Material
Human Living: The Social Sciences – Miscellaneous Reading Content (2 folders)
Human Living: The Social Sciences – The Biological Background of Human Living
Human Living: The Social Sciences – Miscellaneous Writings Unit 1
Human Living: The Social Sciences – Unit II
Human Living: The Social Sciences – Unit II: 8th Grade Unsorted (various subjects)
Human Living: The Social Sciences – Unit IV Group Materials (2 folders)
Human Living: The Social Sciences – Questions Unit IV (2 folders)
Human Living: The Social Sciences – Unit IV Fragments and Material
Other Units Miscellaneous Notes and Clippings
Basic Processes in Society
Unit One Material
Basic Processes in Society V. I
Basic Processes in Society V. II
Basic Processes in Society V. III

Box 16
Basic Processes in Society (continued)

Basic Processes in Society V. IV
Basic Processes in Society V. V
Basic Processes in Society V. VI
Basic Processes in Society V. VII
American History Curriculum Material
Class Materials for History – History Outlines
American History Material
United States History Material and Maps
Surplus News Articles, Maps, Pictures
Maps Etc.
US in Western Civilization Notes
The US in Western Civilization Outlines
Review Questions: US in Western Civilization
European Background
European Maps Surplus
The Statute of Westminster, 1931 (First Five Sections Only)
Canada’s Government
Monroe Doctrine (Class Notes)
Steps by Which Oregon Country Became Definitively a Part of U.S.
American History Illustrations
Chronology of American History (tentative draft)
Declaration of Independence
Creed of Business Man of the 1880-1890
Commager Documents on Secure Central Government to 1860s
Commager Documents on Expansion of Territory
References on Atomic Energy: Use and Control
A Declaration on Economic Justice
Democracy as a Master Standard
Developing American Creed, W. K. Lipton
The Developing Constitution and the American Creed
The U.S. Communist Party – A.M. Schlesinger
American Foreign Policy
Independent People and Its Government
Latin America's Development and Our Relationship With Her
Legends for Illustrations

Box 17
American History Curriculum Material (continued)

Problems of Democracy Course (Students Reports)
Story "Quayle Innis" by M. E. Quayle
The Making of Americans, Low Fifth Grade, prepared by Herbert B. Bruner
Eighth Grade American History Exploration Unit I
Unit I Critics’ Comments (Eighth Grade American History)
8th Grade Unit II – Colonization of the New World
Unit II – Final Drafts and Notes
Unit III Notes
Surplus Chapter 1(2 folders)
Exploration of Chapter I – Surplus
Guide Illustrations – Chapters 1 and 2
Chapter II Notes
Surplus Chapter II – Maps, Illustrations (2 folders)

Box 18
American History Curriculum Material (continued)

Chapter IV, Copy 4, Texts and Illustrations
Chapters XLV and XV Void Material
Outline Survey of American History – A.M. Lewis
An Exploration of a First Unit in American History
Building America
Building America: Illustrated Studies on Modern Problems (1943) V. I
Building America: Illustrated Studies on Modern Problems (1943) V. II
Building America: Illustrated Studies on Modern Problems (1943) V. III
Building America: Illustrated Studies on Modern Problems (1943) V. IV
Building America: Illustrated Studies on Modern Problems (1943) V. V
Building America: Illustrated Studies on Modern Problems (1943) V. VI
Building America: Illustrated Studies on Modern Problems (1943) V. VII
Building America: Illustrated Studies on Modern Problems (1943) V. VIII
Building America: Illustrated Studies on Modern Problems (1943) V. IX
Building America: Illustrated Studies on Modern Problems (1943) V. X
Negatives – Group 1 through 8
Negatives (American History)

Box 19
Books (No Annotations)

* Foreword authored by LCM

Columbia University Faculty Seminar I
Columbia University Faculty Seminar II
1927-1928 Selected Articles
The Waiver of Jury Trial in Criminal Cases in Ohio, 1933
*Uniform Classification for Judicial Criminal Statistics, 1931
The Public Service Commission of Maryland
*Expenditures of Public Money for Administration of Justice in Ohio, 1930
*Unlocking the Treasuries of the Trial Courts
*Comparative Judicial Criminal Statistics: Ohio and Maryland
*Comparative Judicial Criminal Statistics: Six States, 1931
Receiverships in Franklin County, Ohio 1927-1928, 1932
The Mayors' Court of Hamilton County, Ohio, 1933
Ohio Criminal Statistics 1931, 1932
*The Divorce Court V. II Ohio, 1933
Appellate Courts and Appellate Procedure in Ohio, 1933
*The Administration of Criminal Justice in Franklin County, Ohio, 1935


Series 4: Correspondence (1910-1951)
3 linear feet

Leon C. Marshall’s correspondence, incoming and outgoing, relates to issues of publication and academics. The bulk of the correspondence stems from the years 1936 to 1942, when Marshall was in the midst of participation in curriculum-development projects and the creation and publication of his two textbooks, Living Together Well and Understanding Yourself and Your World. This material is organized chronologically.

Box 20
Correspondence

1910-1912
1922
1923
1924
1925
1928
1929
1930-1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
January 1936 – June 1936
July 1936 – September 1936
October 1936 – December 1936
January 1937 – March 1937
April 1937 – June 1937
July 1937 – October 1937
n.d.

Box 21
Correspondence (continued)

November 1937 – December 1937
January 1938 – March 1938
July 1938 – October 1938
November 1938 – December 1938
January 1939 – March 1939
April 1939 – August 1939
September 1939 – December 1939
January 1940 – May 1940
June 1940 – August 1940
September 1940 – December 1940
January 1941 – April 1941
May 1941 – August 1941
September 1941 – December 1941
January 1942 – June 1942
July 1942 – December 1942
1943
1944 – 1951
n.d.