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Artemis Martin Papers

VOLUME: 4.5 linear feet (6.0 linear feet oversize)

ACCESS: This collection is open to the public upon request.

COPYRIGHT: Please consult the archivist for information about duplication or publishing of any materials from this collection.

RELATED COLLECTIONS: Artemas Martin Collection of Mathematical and Scientific Works

Biographical Note

Artemas Martin was born August 3, 1835 in Steuben County, New York.  His family moved to Venango County, Pennsylvania when Martin was a year-and-a-half old.  Martin learned to read and write at home.  His schooling was limited to some primary instruction as a child and several terms at the Franklin Select School and the Franklin Academy.  Martin taught school for four winters in Venango County.  Martin moved to Erie, Pennsylvania in 1869.  He grew garden produce that he sold at the semi-weekly street market in the 1870s.  Artemas Martin was appointed Librarian at the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1885.  He remained in this position until his death in 1918.

Martin submitted his first solution to the Pittsburgh Almanac when he was eighteen.  He was a regular contributor of problems and solutions to several newspapers and mathematical magazines.  Martin served as editor of the mathematical department for several papers including Clark’s School Visitor and The Normal Monthly. In 1877, he began editing and publishing the Mathematical Visitor. He followed this in 1882 with the Mathematical Magazine. He served as editor, publisher and typesetter for both magazines.

Artemas Martin received honorary degrees from Yale University (M.A. 1877), Rutgers University (Ph.D. 1884), and Hillsdale College (LL.D. 1885).  He was elected a member of several mathematical societies including the London Mathematical Society (1878), Mathematical Society of France (1884), Edinburgh Mathematical Society (1885), and New York Mathematical Society (1891).  Martin was also elected a member (1889) and fellow (1890) of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Scope and Content Note

The Artemas Martin papers document all aspects of life including his years as market gardener, teacher, book collector, and editor/publisher.  This collection includes published and unpublished mathematical papers (1893-1916), published and unpublished mathematical problems and solutions (1853-1891); lists of produce sales (1865-1882), subscribers to both of Martin’s journals (1878-1884), and books to be purchased or sold (1885-1901); correspondence (1874-1915); mathematical and scientific conference proceedings and journals (1868-1916); newspapers (1863-1886) and newspaper clippings.


Artemas Martin donated these materials to American University in 1918 with his book collection.  Walter Shenton, Professor of Mathematics, served as the first curator of the book collection.

Processing Note

The Artemas Martin Papers were arranged into five series.  Many of the bound books had loose materials in them.  These items were removed, sorted, and filed.  Newspaper clippings were either added to the scrapbook in series 9 or the loose published problems in series 2.  Letters were interfiled with the correspondence.  The newspapers were flattened for storage in flat boxes by size.  The scrapbook in series 9 consisted of envelopes.  It was disbound and the contents were placed in archival folders.

Series Descriptions and Box & Folder Listing

Series 1: Writings 1827-1916
(1.0 linear feet)

Divided into two sections: by Martin (chronological) and by others (alphabetical by author).

Box 1
By Martin

  • On the Resolution of the Symmetrical Equations, 1864
  • On Fifth Power Numbers whose Sum is a Fifth Power, 1893
  • A Simple Method of Finding any Number of Square Numbers whose sum is a Square,1895-1896
  • About Biquadrate Numbers whose Sum is a Biquadrate Number, 1896
  • Solution of a Diophantine Problem, 1898
  • A Method of Finding, without Tables the Number Corresponding to a Given Logarithm. ,1898
  • Rational Scalene Triangles, 1899
  • "Method of Computing the Common Logarithm of a number without making use of any logarithm but that of some power of 10,"  Deuxième Congrès International Des Mathématiciens, 1900
  • Notes on the History of American Textbooks on Arithmetic. By James Greenwood and Artemas Martin, 1900
  • Table of Right-Angled Triangles, 1906
  • On "Formulae for Rational Right Triangles," 1911
  • On Rational Right-Angled Triangles, 1912
  • Prime Numbers in Arithmetical Progression, 1913
  • Some Properties of Rational Plane Triangles Whose Sides are Whole Numbers, 1913
  • A Method of Finding without the Use of Tables the Number Corresponding to a Given Natural Logarithm, 1915
  • Notes on Carmichael’s Diophantine Analysis, 1916
  • On Probability
  • Mathematical Tracts
  • The sum of two Biquadrate Numbers can not be a Biquadrate Number
  • Formulas for computing the Logarithms of Prime Numbers
  • Rendiconti. Reale Instituto Lombardo di Scienze Lettere (with partial English translation)
  • Tables of Logarithms and how to Compute them
  • On the Symbol V-1
  • Last Theorem of Fermat
  • Computations of Logarithms by Series
  • Logarithms

By Others

  • Andoyer, H.  Leçons Élémentaires sur la Théorie des Formes et Ses Applications Géometriques, a L’Usage des Candidats a L’Agrégation des Sciences Mathématiques, 1898
  • Barbette, Édouard.
    - "Sur la determination des taux dans les problemes d’annuites," L’enseignement Mathematique XI Annee  No. 4. July 15, 1909
    - "Le dernier theoreme de Fermat" 1910
    - "Les Sommes de Pièmes Puissances Distinctes Égales à une Pième Puissance" 1910
  • Boorman, J. Marcus. Computation of the Napierian Base
  • Bose, Jagadis Chunder. "On the Rotation of Plane Polarisation of Electric Waves by a Twisted Structure."  Proceedings of the Royal Society Vol. LXIII No. 393 May 9, 1898
  • Bryant, I.H. "Simultaneous Quadratic Equations," School Room Department March 1896
  • Burali-Forti, C e R Marcolongo, "Elementi di Caluolo Vettoriale con Numerose Applicazioni alla Geometria alla Meccanica e all Fisica-Matematica" 1909
  • Cajori, Florian
    - "Evolution of Criteria of Convergence," Bulletin of the New York Historical Society, Vol. AA, No. 1, 1892
    - "A History of the Arithmetical Methods of Approximation to the Roots of Numerical Equations of one Unknown Quantity...., " Colorado CollegePublication. General Series No. 52. No. 7., Nov. 1910

Box 2

  • Carmichael, R.D, "On the Numerical Factors of the Arithmetic Forms a + b ..,"Dec 1913
  • DeLand, Theodore
    - The United States Bond Problem, 1895
    - The United States Sinking-Fund, 1899
  • Dodd, Edward L., "The Error Risk of the Medium Compared with that of the Arithmetic Mean," Bulletin of the University of Texas. No. 323. March 15, 1914
  • Fessenden, Reginald. "Recent Progress in Practical and Experimental Electricity," Bulletin of the Philosophical Society of Washington. Vol. XIV, pp. 167-178
  • Galois, D’Évarist, Oeuvres Mathématiques. 1897
  • Gautier, D., Mesure des Angles. Hyperboles Étoilées et Développante. 1911
  • Gilpin, Charles Jr.  Method of Solving Cubic Equations by Approximation
  • Grant, George B., "Machine for Solving Numerical Equations," American Machinist February 1896
  • Haltead, George Bruce, "Darwinism and Non-Euclidean Geometry," Bulletin de la Société Physico-Mathématique de Kasan,  Deuxième série.  Tome VI, No. 3-4, 1896
  • Heal, W. E
    - Note on the Value of ?
    - Problems
  • Heald, Franklin.  "Orbits of Comets," Higher Science of the Motion of Matter, July 1902
  • Hoover, William, Two Theorems on Logarithms
  • Holden, Warren
    - A third method of presenting the demonstration of Euclid’s eleventh axiom
    - To Prove, without the aid of parallels, that the sum of the angles of a plane triangle is two right angles
    - A line perpendicular to one of two equidistant straight lines is perpendicular to the other
    - Second method of proving, without the aid of parallels, that the sum of the angles of a plane triangle is two right angles
    - Amendment to a third method of presenting the demonstration of Euclid’s eleventh axiom
    - Two straight lines, in the same plane, which approach, will meet is sufficiently produced
    - If two straight lines be drawn perpendicular to a third, and equal parts of the first two be laid off and joined by a fourth, this fourth line will be equal to the third, and at right angles with the first two
    - The Sum of the angles of a Plane Triangle is two Right Angles
  • Juvigny, J.B., Application de L’Arithmétique du Commerce et a la Banque. (Title page and partial index only) 1827
  • Kempe, A., Der Grosze Fermatsche Satz: Versuch Einer Beweisführung. 1913
  • Knapen, D.M.  Coincidental Logarithms
  • Lambert, Walter D.  Computation of Table of a Function with Equidistant Arguments
  • Loud, Frank H., "The Circular Locus: Geometrically Constructed to Show Imaginary Values of the Variables," Colorado College Studies: Papers Read Before the Colorado College Scientific Society, 1893
  • Lussan, Éloi
    - Essai de Démonstration Générale du Théorème de Fermat, 1911
    - Deuxième Essai de Démonstration Générale du Théorème de Fermat, 1912
  • Matteson, James, A Collection of Diophantine Problems with Solutions, 1888
  • Michel, F., Recueil de Problèmes de Géométrie Analytique, a L’Usage des classes de Mathématiques Spéciales, 1900
  • Philbrick, P.H.  Reply to Mr. Eastman’s "Plea."
  • Pinet, Henri.   Mémoire sur une Nouvelle Méthode pour la Résolution des Équations Numériques, 1899
  • Pritchett, Henry S., "The Astronomer as Engineer," The Journal of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute Vol. 2, No. 1, November 1898
  • Prompt, Dr., Démonstrations Nouvelles des Théorèmes de Fermat et de Wilson, 1913
  • Schiavone, Mario, Il Principio della dirigibilitá orrizontale degli aerostati ed il Binaerostato, 1898
  • Scully, D., An Attempted Solution of Problem No. 219
  • Seal, Brajendranath, A Memoir on the Coefficients of Numbers Being a Chapter in the Theory of Numbers, 1891
  • Shaler, Nathaniel S., The Influence of the Sun upon the Formation of the Earth’s Surface
  • Sheraton, Walter Frances, Linear Combinants of Systems of Binary Form, with the Syzygies of the second degree connecting them, 1914
  • Szpunar, Val. Mar., On Pythagorean Numbers and on Fermat’s Last Theorem, 1913
    - Letters with calculations from Szpunar to Martin (10/13/1914; 11/17/1914)
    - Letter from Heal to Martin proclaiming Szpunar’s argument to be wrong
  • Van Orstrand, C.E., Tables of the Exponential Functions, June 19, 1913
  • Wright, T.W.  Note on Multiplication and Division

Series 2: Problems and Solutions 1853-1891
(1.75 linear feet)

Unpublished and published versions of mathematical problems and solutions. The unpublished versions come first.

Box 3

  • Problems I — LXVIII
  • Mathematical Problems, 1853-1856
    - Also contains: Attendance Book and Produce Sales
  • Algebraical Problems, 1858
  • Miscellaneous Mathematical Problems – Original and Selected - 1-1367, 1864
  • Problems selected from Cambridge Mathematical Examination Papers
    - Also contains: Integrals; Subscription information (reprints)
  • Problems and Solutions – Original and Selected Vol. I-III, 1865-1868
  • [Problems and Solutions]
  • Problems and Solutions by EA Hopkins

Box 4

  • Solutions Vol V-VIII
  • [Calculations] ca. 1891
  • Problems and Solutions - Vol. I-II [clippings]

Box 5

  • Scrapbooks (4)

Box 6

  • [Mathematical Problems (clippings)]
  • Problems and Rules/Diophantine Problems/Purchases, 1862
  • Queries and Answers
  • Solutions from the Normal
  • Loose problems and solutions
    - By Martin
    - By Others
    - Published Answers 1875-1876 , n.d.
    - Published by Martin
    - Published problems

Series 3: Lists 1865-1901
(0.5 linear feet)

Contents: lists of subscribers, produce sales, and books sold.

Box 6 (continued)

  • Pennsylvania – Market Gardening, 1877-1882, 1865-1873
  • Subscription Lists to Mathematical Visitor, 1878-1881
  • Subscription Lists to Mathematical Magazine, 1882-1884

Box 7

  • Catalogue of Arithmetics published in the United States in the private library of Artemas Martin
  • Books purchased, 1885-1894 (2 folders)
  • [Articles and Books Wanted/Books Procured]
  • [List of items to purchase]
  • [Lists of presentation copies]
  • List of Rare and Scarce Books in Artemas Martin’s Library
  • List of Books Sold from Library, 1901

Series 4: Publications 1814-1916
(0.5 linear feet)

Contents: mathematical and scientific conference proceedings and journals, newspapers featuring mathematical problems including The National Educator and The Yates County Chronicle, and other publications. Sorted by type and then alphabetically by title.

Box 7 (continued)

Mathematical and Scientific

  • Academie des Sciences. Compte Rendu des Seances. 2 Mars 1868
  • Colorado College Studies. 1890
  • Internationale Monatsschrift Für Wissenschift Kunst und Tecknik Begründet von Friedrich Althoff, Oct. 1914
  • Mathematical Supplement of School Science. Vol. I, No. 1-3 1903
  • The Mathematical Visitor. Edited and published by AM
    - March 1877. Volume 1, Number 1
    - January 1881. Volume 1, Number 6
  • Mathematisch-naturwussenschaftliche Mitteilungen. 1899-1900
  • Mathematische Annalen In Verbindung Mit C. Neumann Bergründet Durch Rudolf Friedrich Alfred Clebsch. 1890

Box 8

Mathematical and Scientific (continued)

  • Mitteilungen der Verlagsbuchhandlung. 1890. No. 2
  • Nouvelles Annales de Mathématiques, Journals des Candidats aux Écoles Spéciales; A La Licence et a L’Agrégation, Quatrième Série, Tome XIII. Juillet 1913
  • Societe Mathematique de France. Comptes Rendu Des Seances. 1913-1914, 1916


  • The Evening Star Almanac. 1887. Washington, D.C
  • The Fugitive Slave Bill: Its History and Unconstitutionality.... 1850
  • Hoch-Deutsches reformirtes ABC = und Namen-Buchlein für kinder welche anfangen zu lerner. Philadelphia: Wm. A. Mentz
  • Mechanical Arithmetic [Advertising Pamphlet for the Comptometer, Felt & Tarrant Manufacturing Co., Chicago]
  • Money, Weights and Measures of the American Republics. Bulletin No. 4. April 1891
  • Patent Right Oppression Exposed. By Patrick N.I. Elisha, 1814
  • Price List of the Young America Press Co. (New York, 1881)
  • Some Testimonials and Credentials of George Bruce Halstead, 1883

Newspapers (not all issues are complete) [Oversize Boxes 1-4]

  • California
    - California Architect and Building News/Review 1881-82, 1884, 1886 [OS 3]
  • Indiana
    - Waterloo City Press 1863 (1) [OS 3]
  • Iowa
    - Davenport Monthly 1887-89 [OS 4]
    - La Porte City Progress 1871 [OS 4]
    - Tribune News {Afton} 1881 (1) [OS 3]
  • Michigan
    - Hillsdale Herald 1879 (1) [OS 3]
  • New York
    - The Rural American 1868 (1) [OS 3]
    - Yates County Chronicle 1872-73, 1875, 1877-80 [OS 1 & 2]
  • Pennsylvania
    - Erie Advertiser 1882 (1) [OS 4]
    - Erie Gazette 1878, 1880 [OS 1]
    - Erie Sunday Morning Gazette 1877, 1881 [OS 1]
    - National Educator 1875-77 [OS 1]
    - Town & Country {Erie} (1) [OS 3]
  • Tennessee
    - Tusculum Record 1878-80 [OS 4]

Series 5: Personal 1868-1915
(0.75 linear feet)

Contents: business cards, correspondence, newspaper clippings on a variety of topics of interest to Martin, and a couple of photographs.

Box 8 (continued)

  • Business Cards and Addresses
  • Correspondence 1874-1915 (non-inclusive)
    - Saxe, Charles T. December 10, 1874
    - Evans, Alexander May 17, 1883
    - Gould, H. [November 5, 1883]
    - Murray, N. December 15, 1883
    - Kummel, Charles K. February 5, 1884
    - Blackman, Frank W. February 11, 1884
    - Haight, Milton June 19, 1885
    - Bell, Thomas May 19, 1887
    - C.F. Libbie May 21, 1887
    - Sargent & Greenleaf February 10, 1891
    - Shields, F.M. June 2, 1891
    - Receipts - W.H. Stewart; J.U. and C.J. Lloyd December 7, 1891
    - Hoover, William January 25, 1893
    - Withee, Hart August 1, 1893
    - Cajori, Florian July 17, 190?
    - Bangs February 17, 1903
    - University of Pennsylvania Library January 9, 1905 & January 20, 1906
    - Hjorth, LC July 20, 1913 & November 28, 1914 [Attachment: Publisher’s Review of Proof of Fermat’s Theorem by Michael Angelo McGinnis]
    - [Anonymous] December 3, 1915
  • [Health Care Products – Recipes]
  • [Insurance]
  • [Newspaper Advertisements]
  • Photographs and Illustrations
  • Pocket Slate
  • Scrapbook of Newspaper Clippings
    - Astronomy 1868-1898
    - Biography
    - Books and Printing
    - Botany
    - Cuba
    - Curiosities of Literature, Language, etc.
    - [Education]
    - [Guam]

Box 9

  • Scrapbook of Newspaper Clippings (continued)
    - Hawaii
    - History
    - Humor
    - Ingersoll
    - Library
    - Medical & Health
    - Money and Politics
    - Natural History
    - Naval and Military
    - Obituaries
    - Patriotic Verse
    - Philippines
    - Poetry
    - [Religion and Morality]
    - Science
    - Mrs. Southworth
    - Stamps
    - Temperance
    - U.S. Coast & Geodetic Survey
    - War
    - [Washington, D.C.]
    - Weather
  • Société Mathématique de France 1896