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On General Education


American Association of Colleges and Universities (AAC&U)

Middle States Commission on Higher Education 


Arnold, G., & Civian, J. T. (1997). The Ecology of General Education Reform. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 29(4), 18-23. Retrieved from

Chapman, L., & Krenkel, A. (2015, January 15). General Education Curriculum Structure (Research brief). Retrieved

Diaz, N. A., & Krenkel, A. (2014, March 20). Balancing General Education and Major Requirements at Private Religious Institutions (Research brief). Retrieved from

Eisenmann, L., Brumberg-Kraus, J., Gavigan, L., & Morgan, K. (Fall 2014/Winter 2015). Creating "Connections 3.0" Peer Review, 16-18. Retrieved from

Fuess, S. M., & Mitchell, N. D. (2011). General Education Reform: Opportunities for Institutional Alignment. The Journal of General Education60(1), 1–15.

Hachtmann, F. (2012). The Process of General Education Reform From a Faculty Perspective: A Grounded Theory Approach. The Journal of General Education61(1), 16-38.

Hart Research Associates. (2016, February 17). Trends in Learning Outcomes Assessment: Key Findings from a Survey among Administrators at AAC&U Member Institutions (Rep. No. 3). Retrieved

Hart Research Associates. (2016, January 19). Recent Trends in General Education Design, Learning Outcomes, and Teaching Approaches: Key Findings from a Survey among Administrators at AAC&U Member Institutions (Rep. No. 3). Retrieved

LeMaster, J., & Moore, S. (2011, July 6). Transitioning to a Renewed General Education Model (Research brief). Retrieved

Maher, L., & Geraci, L. (2012, March 8). Outcomes-Based General Education Programs (Research brief). Retrieved

Mardirosian, H. (2004), The Reforms in General Education at American University. New Directions for Higher Education, 125: 39–49. doi: 10.1002/he.138

Quigley, D. (Spring 2015). Shaping the Core. Boston College Magazine. Retrieved from

Wehlburg, C. M. (Ed.). (2010). Integrated General Education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 121. Retrieved from

Examples of General Education Programs

Bard College

CSU Chico

Mount Holyoke

Spelman College