"The Consequences of Rationing Antiretroviral Treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa", Drew Cameron (Abstract, PDF)
"Reconstructing Gender Identity for Child Combatants in Post-Conflict African Societies",Laura Woodbury (Abstract, PDF)
"The Complexities of Culture and Reconciliation in Burundi", Jeremy Haken (Abstract, PDF)
"Islamic Finance and International Financial Regulation", Emily Sarah Hersh (Abstract, PDF)
"U.S. Radio Broadcasting in Iraq and Afghanistan: A Grand Soliloquy?", Leanne McCullough (Abstract, PDF)
"Venezuelan Oil Diplomacy and Voting in the U.N. General Assembly", Mathias Poertner (Abstract, PDF)
"Evo Morales and the Global Economy: Sustainable Development in Bolivia", Julia Kennedy (Abstract, PDF)
"How Subcomandante Marcos-Employed Strategic Communication to Promote the Zapatista Revolution", Meredith Fender (Abstract, PDF)
Letter from the Editor
As a student of international affairs, I am astounded by the complexity of the ways that we shape our world in the 21st century. The articles in this issue provide an excellent illustration of the variety of issues we face and highlight contexts in which gender, medicine, communication, religion, technology, oil, international institutions, public health, foreign aid, child soldiers, post-war reconstruction and reconciliation, trade, economics and a myriad of other factors shape our past, present, and future.
In finalizing the articles presented in this issue, our staff discussed the possibility of creating thematic groupings; but found that geography was the only way to categorize them. At first, thinking that we had excellent yet disconnected papers, I looked through old issues of the Journal of International Service and its predecessor, Swords and Ploughshares, for inspiration. I discovered that former editors, too, had lamented the Journal’s thematic bankruptcy. The reality, as my predecessors often pointed out, is that it is nearly impossible to publish a journal by graduate students from the School of International Service that contains articles neatly labeled by category. Students’ interests, passions, and opportunities are too varied for such conventions.
What the articles we publish do have in common is the idea that no policy issue can be analyzed in a vacuum. Even the narrowest of policies have consequences beyond their immediate, intended effects that make real differences in people’s lives and for our global future. The interconnectedness not just of people, but also of policies, is the overarching theme of the last 20 years of publications by this organization. I am confident that this compensates for any issue-specific thematic deficit.
On behalf of all of the students behind the Journal of International Service, a special thanks to everyone who contributes to the Journal’s success. This Journal would not be possible without the dedication of our staff, talents of our authors, efforts by professors to encourage submissions, and the guidance and support of Dean Louis Goodman and the Graduate Student Council. As a community we are fascinated by the work of our peers, and the Journal is an opportunity for each of us to witness what inspires and motivates our classmates. My hope is that each reader will find inspiration for his or her own work within these pages.
Throughout much of Sub-Saharan Africa desperately needed antiretroviral drugs are in short supply. The scarcity of this essential resource has disproportionately affected poor and marginalized African communities, reinforcing preexisting structural inequalities and enhancing negative outcomes. This article utilizes Johan Galtung’s notion of structural violence to examine the historical and spatial patterns of inequality which shape, and are shaped by, inequitable distribution of HIV/AIDS medications. Indeed, the circumstances of pharmaceutical triage in Sub-Saharan Africa represent a particular articulation of the longstanding history of inequality and restrictions to human potential in the region. Using a needs/capabilities framework, this article examines resulting consequences to health and health sectors, adverse economic outcomes in Zambia and diminishing perceptions of self-worth and agency among marginalized communities in Uganda.
The gender dimension of Disarmament, Demobilization and Rehabilitation (DDR) programming is key in its successful reintegration of combatants. Although the gender-specific needs of females have been a popular topic for the past decade in literature and practice, it is time to consider the particular needs of male combatants as well. This article explores the relationship between masculinity and conflict in the African context and the challenges that these dynamics bring to DDR programming in that region. It goes a step further and explores how this knowledge might be applied to programming, while also discussing some hard questions that must be discussed before such is undertaken.
The colonization of Burundi has had a profound impact on the cultural evolution of Burundian society. Now, as Burundi tries to rebuild after decades of civil war, peacemakers are drawing on both traditional and Western reconciliation methods, to overcome the potential barriers to peacekeeping. This article illustrates that Western reconciliation mechanisms have become integrated into traditional cultural institutions like the Bashingantahe to positively affect post conflict reconciliation. Specifically, the article argues that an infusion of traditional and liberal reconciliation techniques is needed to address disarmament, demobilization, reinsertion and reintegration, as well as poverty in Burundian society, which is made necessary because of the unique impact that Western colonization has had on the nature of Burundian culture.
This article responds to criticisms of international financial regulation by exploring the case of Islamic Financial Institutions, which engage in practices and follow models that preclude application of conventional regulatory standards. It first provides an introduction to the practice of Islamic Finance, explaining the Quranic foundation of Islamic financial products and services and the different types of institutions that provide them. Next, it describes the current conventional financial architecture through an explanation of the Basel II and Basel III agreements. It details the three pillars of Basel II and describes changes to the Basel agreements that have been made to improve the system. It analyzes what aspects of conventional regulation fail to adequately address Islamic institutions, and turns to an explanation of the role of the Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB) in regulating Islamic institutions. It illustrates the coexistence of Islamic and conventional institutions in Bahrain, and concludes by speculating on future fragmentation of international financial regulation if international regulators fail to structure regulatory norms in a flexible manner capable of capturing alternative systems and practices.
In war zones, radio broadcasting is a particularly important public diplomacy tool, as many other methods are limited by infrastructure and safety concerns. However, radio broadcasting is by its nature almost exclusively unidirectional. Over the past decade, U.S. radio broadcasts have flooded listeners in Afghanistan and Iraq with information, but its unidirectional nature has limited its effectiveness as a public diplomacy tool. Contemporary broadcasting continues to emphasize message delivery from the United States to the target audience, whose legitimacy in the eyes of the U.S. government is directly related to its perceived ability to promote U.S. foreign policy goals. Contrary to their intentions, U.S. broadcasters have proven less persuasive than locally-based competitors that involve Middle Eastern citizens in the construction of narratives. In the case of Iraq and Afghanistan, U.S. public diplomacy outreach has revealed a greater desire to be heard than to listen, to be understood than to understand.
Venezuela enjoys one of the world’s largest oil reserves and uses these resources as an important instrument of its foreign policy. Analyzing the voting behavior of all countries in the Western hemisphere in the United Nations General Assembly from 1994 to 2008, this article examines whether Venezuelan oil diplomacy towards other countries has increased those countries’ support of Venezuela in the United Nations General Assembly. Correlations between significant increases in voting behavior similarity with Venezuela and the exercise of an oil initiative indicate that Venezuelan oil diplomacy has an impact on other countries’ voting behavior in a few cases. However, the lack of such correlations in most cases leads to the conclusion that Venezuelan oil diplomacy is a highly inefficient instrument to gain influence over other countries in the United Nations General Assembly. Although Venezuelan oil diplomacy might have an influence on some countries, it is unable to dominate most countries’ foreign policy behavior.
Although Evo Morales is well-known for strongly socialist rhetoric and for rising to power on a popular swell of “rollback” globalization backlash, his trade and investment policies have changed how Bolivia engages with the global economy without significantly decreasing the extent of that engagement. This article presents an analysis of how this new engagement, which represents both a departure from and a continuation of past policies, has impacted Bolivia’s sustainable development. The balance Morales has sought between attempting to change how Bolivia engages with the global economy and ending that engagement all together has helped Bolivia achieve significant development progress. Maintaining these benefits, and ensuring that they are long-term and cumulative improvements in the quality of life for all Bolivians, will require continued policy action and exterior support. The international community has long made commitments to sustainable development; in Bolivia’s case there are clear opportunities to translate that commitment into action.
Insufficient research has explored or formulated an adequate theory to explain how oppressed groups, such as the Zapatistas of Chiapas, Mexico, use discourse strategies to frame their advocacy discourse to obtain the optimal attention and aid of national and global actors concerned with helping them. To address this knowledge gap, this grounded theory inquiry will examine the nature and substance of Subcomandante Marcos’ communication strategies in the Zapatista movement in Chiapas, Mexico that garnered the assistance of national and global actors. This qualitative study explores Marcos’ communiqués from December 31, 1993 to February 16, 1996 to identify a grounded theory as to what type of language, advocacy discourse and representations, combined with other sociopolitical factors, enabled Marcos to harness the assistance of national and global actors for the EZLN. This study finds that Marcos employed discourses that fell within preexisting discourse frameworks circulating throughout Mexican national and global civil society to maximize the impact of Zapatista discourse.