- Additional Positions at AU
- Professor, Computer Science
Society for Neuroscience
Vision Sciences Society
Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience
Arthur Shapiro specializes in the areas of visual perception and neuroscience, and works on topics related to color perception, motion, visual camouflage, and low-light-level vision. He is best known for creating visual illusions that serve to elucidate the connections between perception, the brain, and the physical world.
Honors, Awards, and Fellowships
- Top 10 illusions of the year (international contest sponsored by the Neural Correlate Society)
- Dramatically Different Percepts between Foveal and Peripheral Vision (2008), Knight, E. J., Shapiro, A. G., & Lu, Z. L.
- Perpetual Collisions (2008), Shapiro, A. G. & Knight, E. J.
- Where Has All the Motion Gone? (2007), Third prize, Shapiro, A. G. & Knight, E. J.
- Swimmers, Eels and Other Gradient-Gradient Illusions (2007), Knight, E. J. & Shapiro, A. G.
- Weaves’ and the Hermann Grid (2007), Hamburger, K. & Shapiro, A. G.
- Motion-Illusion Building Blocks (2005), First prize, Shapiro, A. G. & Charles, J. P.
Recent invited lectures "Color is slow; color contrast is fast." Keynote lecture, International Colour Vision Society Conference, Braga, Portugal (July 2009).
- “Separating color from color contrast: the implications for motion and brightness illusions.” Centre for Visual Science, York University, Toronto, Canada (February 2009).
- "Why are we surprised by only some of the things we see? Spatial contrast, color contrast, and visual illusions." Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (May 2008).
- "Contrast, Color, and Neuroscience." Lehigh University, Graduate Sponsored Colloquium, Biology department (March 2008).
Recent conference presentations
- Shapiro, A. G., Knight, E. J., & Lu, Z. L. (2008). "Feature blur in peripheral vision." Society for Neuroscience, Washington D.C.
- Shapiro, A. G., Knight, E. J., & Lu, Z. L. (2008). "Spatial scale models of lightness illusions: contrast, anchoring, and tunable filters."Vision Sciences Society, Naples, FL.
- Shapiro, A. G. (2007). "Temporal and spatial factors that influence luminance gauge photometry." Festschrift for Joel Pokorny and Vivianne Smith, Chicago, IL.
- Shapiro, A. G., Smith, J., & Knight, E. (2007). "Spatial scale and simultaneous contrast phenomena." Vision Sciences Society, Sarasota, FL.
- Judge, Best illusion of the year, Neural Correlate Society, 2006
- Co-curator, Demonstration Night (exhibit of educational visual displays), Vision Sciences Society, 2007-2009
Shapiro, A.G. & Todorović, D. (Eds.). (2016, in production). Oxford Compendium of Visual Illusions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Flynn, O. J. & Shapiro, A.G. (Submitted). The Perpetual Diamond Phenomenon: Contrast Reversals and Motion Analysis.
Dixon, E. L. & Shapiro, A.G. (Accepted pending minor revisions). Spatial Frequency, Color Constancy and the Dress. Journal of Vision.
Shapiro, A.G. (2016, in press). Contrast Contrast Asynchrony. In A.G. Shapiro & D. Todorović (Eds.), Oxford Compendium of Visual Illusions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Shapiro, A.G. & Kistler, W. (2016, in press). Color Wagon Wheel. In A.G. Shapiro & D. Todorović (Eds.), Oxford Compendium of Visual Illusions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Shapiro, A.G. (2015). Star Wars Scroll Illusion. i-Perception, 6(5), 1-8. doi: 10.1177/2041669515604060
Shapiro, A.G., Caplovitz, G.P. & Dixon, E.L. (2014). Feature- and Face-Exchange illusions: new insights and applications for the study of the binding problem. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8(804). doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00804
Rose-Henig, A. & Shapiro, A.G. (2014). Contrast-Contrast Asynchronies. Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, 31(4): A232-A238.
Dixon, E.L. & Shapiro, A.G. (2014). The paradoxical effect of spatially homogenous transparent fields on simultaneous contrast illusions. Journal of the Optical Society of America, A, 31(4): A307-A313.
Dixon, E.L., Shapiro, A.G., & Lu, Z.L. (2014). Scale-invariance in brightness illusions implicates object-level visual processing. Scientific Reports, 4, Article Number 3900. doi:10.1038/srep03900
Flynn, O. & Shapiro A.G. (2014). Adelson’s Argyle Illusion and Cornsweet Edges. Psihologija, 47, 353-588.
Flynn, O. & Shapiro A.G. (2013). The separation of monocular and binocular contrast. Vision Research, 93, 19-28.
Hamburger, K., Dixon E. L., & Shapiro, A.G. (2013). From Hermann’s grid to Spillmann’s weaves. In A. Geremek, M.W. Greenlee, & S. Magnussen (Eds.), Perception Beyond Gestalt: Progress in Vision Research (pp.118-127). NY: Psychology Press.
Shapiro, A.G. & Lu, Z.L. (2011). Relative Brightness in Natural Images can be Accounted for by Removing Blurry Content. Psychological Science, 22(11), 1452-1459.
Caplovitz, G., Shapiro, A.G., & Stroud, S. (2011). The maintenance and disambiguation of object representations depend upon feature contrast within and between objects. Journal of Vision, 11(14), 1-14. doi: 10.1167/11.14.1. http://www.journalofvision.org/content/11/14/1
Shapiro, A.G., Knight, E.J., & Lu, Z.L. (2011). A First- and Second-Order Motion Energy Analysis of Peripheral Motion Illusions Leads to Further Evidence of “Feature Blur” in Peripheral Vision. PLoS ONE, 6(4), e18719. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018719
Shapiro, A.G. & Hamburger, K. (2011). What makes an illusion an illusion? An examination of contrast information in grouping and grid phenomena. In E. Charles (Ed.), Psychological Realism: A New Look at an Old Theory (pp. 81-105). Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Shapiro, A.G., Lu, Z.L., Huang, C.B., Knight, E. J., & Ennis, R. (2010). Transitions between central and peripheral vision create spatial/temporal distortions: a hypothesis concerning the perceived break of the curveball. PLoS ONE, 5(10): e13296. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013296
Shapiro, A.G. & Leaver, A.M. (2010). Edges can eliminate the appearance of the contrast asynchrony. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 30(5), 534-544.
Hamburger, K. & Shapiro, A.G. (2009). Spillmann's weaves are more resilient than Hermann's grid. Vision Research, 49(16), 2121-30.
Shapiro, A.G. & Knight, E. J. (2008). Spatial and temporal influences on the contrast gauge asynchrony. Vision Research, 48(26), 2642-2648.
Shapiro, A.G. (2008). Separating color from color contrast. Journal of Vision, 8(1):8, 1-18 http://journalofvision.org/8/1/8, doi:10.1167/8.1.8
Grants and Sponsored Research
- National Institutes of Health (NIH), AREA Award 2000-2003
- Medical Research Foundation of Oregon, 1995-1997
- National Institutes of Health (NIH), Individual National Research Service Award, 1992-1995
Illusions, CuriosityStream.org. Five-part series that Shapiro hosted and presented
Brain Games, National Geographic. Featured 7 of my illusions; Shapiro appeared in “Motion Commotion” episode
News articles, interviews, and TV appearances, including NBC News (D.C. local stations), New York Times, Washington Post, Fox News, Wall Street Journal, Scientific American, and CBC’s Quirks and Quarks and As It Happens
My illusions are frequently featured on international television shows, including Stephen Fry’s QI and several Japanese television program
Freakonomics blog of The New York Times
The Daily Dish, the blog of Andrew Sullivan at The Atlantic Monthly
The Situationist, the blog associated with The Project on Law and Mind Sciences at Harvard Law School
- “Disturbance,” Samek Art Gallery, Bucknell University (2006)
Exhibits for Vision Sciences Society Demonstration Night
- Knight, E. J., Shapiro, A. G., & Lu, Z.L. (2008). "Illusions that illustrate fundamental differences between foveal and peripheral vision." Naples, FL.
- Shapiro, A. G., & Knight, E. J. (2008). "Perpetual collisions, long-range argyles, and other illusions." Naples, FL.
- Shapiro, A. G., Knight, E. J., & Johnson, T. (2007). "’Where has all the motion gone?’ and other visual effects." Sarasota, FL.
- Hamburger, K. & Shapiro, A.G. (2007). "Weaves." Sarasota, FL.
- Shapiro, A.G., Knight, E, J, Palmor, Y., & Mancusi, D. (2006). Swimmers, eels and other gradient-gradient illusions. Sarasota, FL.
- Shapiro, A. G., & Charles, J. P. (2005). "Contrast asynchronies: 57 varieties." Sarasota, FL.
- Shapiro, A. G. & D’Antona, A. D. (2004). "The Winking Effect." Sarasota, FL.