December 2022 Volume 13, Number 2

Read the complete December 2022 issue or browse abstracts and articles below.

A Rising Tide that Does Not Lift All the Boats: Ripple Effects of Urbanization in Brazil and South Africa

By Beining Dai

This article examines the current state of urbanization in Brazil and South Africa, including economic development in two countries whose main economic sources are tourism services, among others, but whose urbanization problems appear at two extremes. Furthermore, the reasons for the false urbanization in Brazil and the possible reverse urbanization in South Africa are briefly explained. The article analyzes the historical and geographical reasons for the large gap between the levels of urbanization among the two countries despite having similar levels of GDP per capita. The article also analyzes the various ripple effects of urbanization in Brazil and South Africa, such as various environmental and health problems. All these ripple effects have ethical implications that require policy changes by the two governments.

Read the full article: Ripple Effects of Urbanization

What is There to Drink? The Lack of Access to Clean Water in Ethiopia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo

By Ally Fox

This article looks at the drinking water situation in both Ethiopia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Both of these countries rank extremely low when it comes to access to clean water and sanitation, despite various domestic and international agencies and programs that have intended to help both countries. This article analyzes why this lack of access to clean water and sanitation exists in these two developing countries and what some ethical implications are. It also examines how the two governments and other organizations attempted to help with the issue.

Read the full article: Lack of Access to Clean Water

The Future is Female: Women are the Key to Successful Population Control in Nigeria and Angola

By Ely Leroy

This article analyzes the patterns of population growth in the developing countries of Nigeria and Angola. Over the last several decades, population has soared in the two countries due to high birth rates, early marriages, and a lack of female agency in family planning. Government intervention in the form of population control programs has been successful, but recent periods of steadily high birth rates indicate a need for further action. As these programs are designed, a focus on female agency must be included to ensure successful implementation. Although cultural differences have previously prevented these methods, they must be overcome in order to successfully mitigate population growth and assist development in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Read the full article: The Future is Female

In the Hot Seat: Climate Change and Agriculture in Ethiopia and Malawi

By Timothy Mcgill

This article evaluates climate change and its effects on food security and agriculture in Ethiopia and Malawi. In Ethiopia and Malawi, climate change has caused an uptick in extreme weather events, most notably droughts and floods, which threaten the agricultural sector of the countries. Ethiopia and Malawi are both agro-dependent countries with high food insecurity, which will be exacerbated by climate change. Climate change and its effects pose an ethical dilemma for the people of Ethiopia and Malawi and for the global community as a whole. On the one hand, neither country contributes significantly to carbon emissions, which are driving human-induced climate issues. On the other hand, however, both countries are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Ethiopia and Malawi have both made concerted efforts to adapt to the effects of climate change to reduce food insecurity and bolster the food production sector.

Read the full article: In the Hot Seat

Women in headress in Arabic-language marketplace
Person in native garb walking in Kenyan grassland and holding spear.

Global Majority E-Journal is a biannual journal publishing on critical issues in the lives of the global majority: the more than 80 percent of the world's population living in developing countries. Topics discussed include poverty, population growth, access to safe water, climate change, and agricultural development. All articles are based on research papers written by AU undergraduate students (mostly freshmen) as one of the course requirements for AU's General Education Course: Econ-110, The Global Majority.

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